Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in the Middle East. It is bordered by several countries, including Turkey and Iraq to the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and the Persian Gulf and Oman to the south. Tehran is the capital and largest city of the country. The official language of Iran is Persian, but many other languages are also spoken, including Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Arabic. The majority of the population is Shia Muslim, but there are also Sunni Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian communities. The country has a diverse geography, with mountains, deserts, and coastal plains. The economy of Iran is primarily based on oil and gas production, but the country also has significant agricultural and industrial sectors. The culture of Iran is known for its rich literature, music, and art, and the country has a long history of scientific and philosophical achievements.