Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger and Algeria to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It has a population of around 6.7 million people and a total area of around 1.8 million square kilometers. The capital and largest city is Tripoli. The official language is Arabic, and the majority of the population is Sunni Muslim. Libya has a long history dating back to ancient times, and it has been ruled by various empires and dynasties throughout the centuries, including the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, and Ottomans. In 1951, Libya gained independence from Italy and became a constitutional monarchy. In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the establishment of a socialist regime that lasted until the 2011 Arab Spring uprising, which led to the overthrow and killing of Gaddafi. Since then, Libya has experienced political instability, civil war, and the rise of extremist groups such as the Islamic State.