Nepal is a landlocked country located in South Asia, bordered by India to the east, west and south, and Tibet to the north. It is a federal parliamentary republic with a diverse geography that includes fertile plains, subalpine forests, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest. The country has a population of approximately 31 million people, with over 125 languages spoken and a rich cultural heritage. The capital city is Kathmandu, and the official language is Nepali. The country has a long history of political instability, but has made significant progress in recent years towards economic development and social stability.