Russia, officially known as the Russian Federation, is a country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the world's largest country by land area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia spans across nine time zones and borders several countries, including Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. Russia has a diverse landscape, featuring forests, tundras, and mountains, as well as the world's longest rivers, including the Volga and the Ob. Russia's climate varies from subtropical to polar, with harsh winters in the north and mild winters in the south. The country has a rich history, dating back to the Kievan Rus' state in the 9th century, and has been a major player in global politics and culture for centuries. Today, Russia is a federal semi-presidential constitutional republic, with a diverse economy that includes energy, agriculture, and manufacturing.